Basil is a culinary herb which is used a lot in Italian food. It is also common in certain dishes of Northeast and Southeast Asia. There are different varieties of basil, each with a slightly different taste.

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St John’s wort

St John's wort

St John's wort, is a medicinal herb that is used to treat depression. It is grown commercially in some parts of south east Europe, but in other places it is considered a weed. The plant is poisonous to grazing livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, horses).

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Sweetleaf or Stevia is a plant originating from South America. It is known for its sweet leaves, which are used to make sweeteners, which are also known as “stevia”.

In Brazil and Paraguay the leaves have been in use for hundreds of years, not only as sweetener but also as a traditional medicine.

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Lemon verbena

Lemon verbena is a small shrub which is used as a herb. It has a typical lemon flavor. The leaves are used to make herbal tea or to flavor fish, poultry, salad dressings, jams, puddings, tea, etc. Lemon verbena can also be used in potpourri.

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Common Dandelion

Dandelion greens

Often considered a weed, the common dandelian can also be used as a medical herb and as food. Dandelion leaves can be collected from the wild but are also sometimes grown to be used as a leaf vegetable. Young leaves and unopened buds are used raw in salads. Older leaves are cooked.

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Centella, or Asiatic pennywort, is a medicinal herb, which is used in traditional African and traditional Chinese medicine. Some claim that it can cure or help relieve arthritis.

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Common rue

Common rue

Common rue can be grown as a deterrent for cats and is also used as an insect repellent. It is a herb with a bitter taste. In Ethiopia leaves of common rue are dipped in coffee to give the coffee an additional flavor. Also used as a medicinal plant to improve appetite and digestion.

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Feverfew is a herb which is sometimes used as a herbal medicine for example to prevent headaches, migraines, and to reduce fever.

The pretty flowers look a bit like daisies and are therefore sometimes planted in gardens as an ornamental plant. Leaves smell a bit like citrus.

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Names Scientific   Rosmarinus officinalisEnglish   RosemaryDutch   RozemarijnSpanish   RomeroFrench   RomarinGerman   RosmarinItalian   Rosmarino Taxonomy Genus   RosmarinusFamily   LamiaceaeOrder   Lamiales Crop categories Herbs Subtropical crops Pictures

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Holy basil

Holy Basil

Holy Basil or Tulsi is an aromatic plant which is used as a herb. A variety called Thai Holy Basil or Kaphrao, is often used in Thai cuisine, for example in 'phat kraphao' which is a stir-fried dish with beef, pork or chicken.

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Pennyroyal is a perennial herb. It is cultivated only in small quantities and sometimes grown in gardens. The leaves have a strong smell which resembles that of spearmint.

The plant is sometimes used as a cooking herb. In small quantities, teas of Pennyroyal are used for medicinal purposes. Essential oil extracted from the plant (Pennyroyal oil) is very poisonous.

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Culantro is sometimes confused with Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) because the names are alike and also the taste is a bit similar, but culantro has a stronger taste.

It is used as a herb in Caribbean and Southeast Asian dishes, usually fresh, but sometimes as a dried herb. Culantro is also used as a medicinal plant to treat all kind of problems including stomachache, fevers, asthma, snake bites, worms and diarrhea.

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Wild betel

Wild betel

Leaves of the Wild betel (Piper sarmentosum) are similar to Betel leaves (Piper betle) but the taste is less intense. The Wild betel leaves are used in Thailand in a dish called Miang kham, where the leaves are used to wrap several ingredients together and are then eaten as a snack or starter.

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Names Scientific   Nasturtium officinaleEnglish   WatercressDutch   Witte waterkersSpanish   Berro   Mastuerzo de aguaFrench   Cresson de fontaineGerman   Brunnenkresse   Echte BrunnenkresseItalian   Crescione d’acqua Taxonomy Genus   NasturtiumFamily   BrassicaceaeOrder   Brassicales Crop categories Vegetables Leaf vegetables Herbs Medicinal plants Food crops Temperate crops Pictures

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Names Scientific   Valeriana officinalisEnglish   Garden valerian   ValerianDutch   Echte valeriaan   ValeriaanSpanish   Valeriana común   Valeriana medicinalFrench   Valériane à petites feuilles   Valériane des collines   Valériane officinaleGerman   Echter Arznei-Baldrian   Echter Baldrian   Hexenkraut   KatzenkrautItalian   Valeriana comune Taxonomy Genus   ValerianaFamily   ValerianaceaeOrder   Dipsacales Crop categories Herbs Medicinal plants Temperate crops Pictures

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Shiny-leaf buckthorn

Shiny-leaf Buckthorn is small tree or shrub that originates from Africa.

In Ethiopia this plant is called Gesho. It is used to produce a type of mead called Tej. The stems of gesho are boiled to prepare an extract that is similar to hops and gives the drink a bitter taste. It is also used to brew an Ethiopian beer called tella. The gesho tree also has edible shiny red fruits.

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Parsley leaves are used as herbs. Especially the type with curly leaves is often used as garnish.

Within this species are several quite different varieties. There are two types of parsley grown for their leaves which are either flat or curly leaves. Another type of parsley is grown for its roots.

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Names Scientific   Origanum vulgareEnglish   OreganoDutch   Oregano   Wilde marjoleinSpanish   OréganoFrench   OriganGerman   OreganoItalian   Origano Taxonomy Genus   OriganumFamily   LamiaceaeOrder   Lamiales Crop categories Herbs Spices Medicinal plants Temperate crops Pictures

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Names Scientific   Mentha spp.English   MintDutch   MuntSpanish   Mastranto   MentaFrench   MentheGerman   MinzenItalian   Menta Taxonomy Genus   MenthaFamily   LamiaceaeOrder   Lamiales Crop categories Herbs Essential oils Pictures

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Marjoran is grown for its aromatic leaves which are used fresh or dried as herbs, for example in the praparation of sausages.

Marjoram is related to oregano.

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Lemon grass

Lemon grass is a tropical plant.

Lemon grass is an important ingredient in many Thai recipes. It is also used as a medicine, for example the leaves are used to make a tea to treat stomach problems.

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Lemon basil

Lemon basil is grown in northeastern Africa and southern Asia.

It is used as a herb in cooking. It has a strong lemon scent.

Lemon basil is a hybrid between basil (Ocimum basilicum) and African basil (Ocimum americanum).

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Lemon balm

Fresh or dried leaves are used to prepare tea. Crushed leaves are rubbed on the skin as a repellant for mosquitos. Used in soups and sauces, often in fish recipes.

Flowers of lemon balm attract many bees.

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Names Scientific   Lavandula spp.English   LavenderDutch   LavendelSpanish   LavandulaFrench   LavandeGerman   LavendelItalian   LavandaOther   Lavanta Taxonomy Genus   LavandulaFamily   LamiaceaeOrder   Lamiales Crop categories Herbs Medicinal plants Essential oils Subtropical crops Industrial crops Pictures

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Jasmine flowers are used to make Jasmine Tea and in the production of perfumes and incense.

The genus Jasminum includes many species. Some cultibated species are: Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum nudiflorum, Jasminum officinale, and Jasminum sambac.

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Gray santolina

Gray Santolina

Gray santolina originates from the Mediterranean region.

Decoctions of Santolina are used to remove intestal parasites. The plant is also used in the production of perfumes. It is also used as an insect repellent.

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Flat leaf parsley

Names Scientific   Petroselinum crispum var. neapolitanumEnglish   Flat leaf parsleyDutch   BladpeterselieSpanish   Perejil comúnFrench   Persil de Naples   Persil platGerman   Glatte Petersilie Taxonomy Genus   PetroselinumFamily   ApiaceaeOrder   Apiales Crop categories Leaf vegetables Herbs Subtropical crops Temperate crops Pictures

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